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After the creation of the Army Corps of Nurses, many women went abroad as nurses, and this gave them strong moral arguments for their voting rights. Women tactics and immoral way of treatment forced the Congress to act on the issue, and it was on August 26, , that President Wilson declares his favor on women suffrage. From this day on, the style of women changed and between and , many women were present in the labor force. Moreover, a notable difference was also evident in the kind of works the women engaged in, and this led to the decrease in the number of female household servants, dressmakers, farmhands,…… [Read More].
Literary Resopnse to World War One. Social Activism and Literature Two of the major themes in 20th century American literature are war and social protest. The United States has been engaged in a steady series of wars since the beginning of the 20th century. With the carnage of the First World War, the horrors of the Second, the futility of Vietnam, many writers and artists contributed to the literature of protest with respect to war, and America's involvement in it.
Its presentation of a wistful era where there is no war, juxtaposed against the current "broken world," illustrates the yearning that many had for a world without war. The First World War had essentially eliminated any romance that there was of war in society, and its brutality would spark this sort of response across the world.
For the first…… [Read More]. Battle of Monte Cassino History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to win the war in the holy land. The problems stem from their not being able to directly attack certain Muslim holy locations or shrines even though Iraqi insurgents are constantly utilizing these positions as sanctuaries and initiation points for waging battles against the allied forces or the new Iraqi government.
A historic shrine was completely destroyed by the events of the Allied forces during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian…… [Read More]. However, the real question is not whether America should have entered World War II, but could it have prevented it from happening.
As the world's new super power following World War I, America should have done more to restore stability to Western Europe, particularly Germany, a country saddled with huge reparation payments. And, the United States could have taken a more active role in the League of Nations to discourage aggression. Economic and political instability caused by World War I led the rise of fascism. World War II in Europe.
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3.
Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last- 3. The World in Flames: The Outbreak of the Second World War: The oad to War. World War II and the. Today, the Americans fight different insurgent factions, who have limited weaponry, no air force, and no real large scale fighting tactics.
Instead, they create havoc with roadside bombs and suicide bombers. Vietnam was fought on the scale of a world war, while Iraq is being fought on a much smaller scale. In addition, there was a draft in place during Vietnam, and no draft in place today, so our forces are stretched much thinner in Iraq and at home. In contrast, many experts believe there are similarities between the two wars, but there are far more differences that keep the two wars very far apart in perspective.
For example, there is no real Communist influence in Iraq; rather the country suffers from domestic unrest and insurgency, rather than large-scale intervention from other countries except perhaps Iran. Thus, Americans are not fighting a "cold" war but rather a war supposedly based…… [Read More].
Sheffield, Gary, War on the Western Front: Works Cited Anderson, Fred. America, Empire of Liberty. Works Cited Keegan, John. The Battle for History: First Vintage Books Edition, Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W. A World at Arms: Cambridge University Press, Works Cited Cook, Tim. The Birth of Which Nation? The Battle of Vimy Ridge. Works Cited Black's Law Dictionary. The New Balance of Power in Europe. The Johns Hopkins Press, Who Started the Great War of ?
Essays by 46 historians make this an important book on the Russian revolution and the fall of the Soviet Union. The discussion of the revolution includes the actors and the question of agency; the parties, the revolutionary movements, and the ideologies; and the question of consciousness and economic. This book review was helpful to the effort of interpreting Kollontai's esoteric and self-absorbed work. The Causes of World War I.
Involvement in World War I. Economy in World War I. Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. Bibliography Ameringer, Charles D. Political Parties of the Americas, s to s: Canada, Latin America, and the West Indie.
History of Canada since Association for Canadian Studies in the United States, Anti-submarine warfare in World War I: British Naval aviation and the defeat of the U-boats. The making of the Second World War. Patriotic war, -- In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed. Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Retrieved on May 26, at http: Talk First, Fight Later. Propaganda in Nazi Germany. Works Cited "German Revolution. Books Cited Johnson, Paul. History of the American People. Tindall, George Brown and Shi, David. People's History of the United States. The United States in the World War: Appeal for Revolt Issued by Lenin, 19 October Lenin's Proclamation of 7 November Siegfried Sassoon -- War Poet. Good-bye to All That. Suicide in the Trenches.
References America in the Great War. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved April 15, , from http: Reference List Grebler, L. The Economic Consequences of the Peace.
The Untold History of the United States. Harvey, First World War literature. The Great War and Modern Memory. Granville Hicks, The Great Tradition: The Myth of German Villainy. The First World War. Henry Holt and Company. Memoirs of the Peace Conference. Hiebert, Ray, and Roselyn Hiebert. The Stock Market Crash, America in Prosperity and Depression, Works Cited Olmsted, Kathryn S.
Oxford University Press, Dada, Surrealism, and the Cinematic Effect. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. A history of Dadaism. Original work published Jones, A. Art History, 25 2 , Works Cited Collins, F. Top 5 Causes of World War 1. Consequences of World War I. Works Cited Karp, Walter.
The Politics of War: Franklin Square Press, The Guns of August. America in the First World War. Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium. History - Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia. The University of Houston. Student-Run Computing Facility Homepage. Ends of British Imperialism. Six Months That Changed the World. The War that Ended Peace. Works Cited Gould, Lewis.
America in the Progressive Era. New York Longman, The Perils of Prosperity, University of Chicago Press, The Art of Staying Neutral. University of Chicago Press. Army Heritage Center Foundation.
The Destruction of Louvain, The Legacy of the 'Rape of Belgium' Propaganda. Works Cited Anti-Semitism in History: United States Holocaust Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, -- The Jewish people in Germany never really had much of a chance to be a part of the country, at least not on a proper level. Reference List Elliot, J. Spain, Europe and the Wider World: Famous Men of the Middle Ages.
Veterans of Foreign Wars of U. Great crises in our history told by its makers. The genesis of the world war: The peace conference of The Doctrine of Strategic Envelopment. In Makers of modern strategy from Machiavelli to the nuclear age. Works Cited Duffy, Michael.
The Causes of World War One. Who started World War I? References Bass, Herbert J. Marten's Press, , p. Norton, ; 2nd edn. Pick, Daniel, War Machine: Yale University Press, The Poetry and Tragedy of Flanders Fields.
References Black's Law Dictionary London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.
Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium.
At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During and France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind.
For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.
British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.
The British never really fought the war they envisaged. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources.
Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.
He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.
This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable.
The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.
They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities.
These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December and December they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. Franco-British co-operation was especially close.
This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War.
Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.
The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.
They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.
They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.
Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.
The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden.
They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect.
Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible.
Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon.
Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers.
Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.
Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed.
In , , and for much of artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme 1 July , to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of and during , however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences.
Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.
The attacking infantry were also transformed. In the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery.
The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery.
This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:
- First World War Poetry "nejigowejiri.ga all I am not concerned with poetry. My subject is war, and the pity of war. The poetry is in the pity." -Wilfred Owen. The First World War, or The Great War, was fought over the period August to November
The First World War went down in history as one of the worst wars ever to be fought, owing to the magnitude of destruction and loss of life it left in its wake. The war started in ending in , and has been described variously as the Great War the War of Nations and the War to End All Wars.
Although the First World War is popularly considered a generally European endeavor, the Ottoman Empire at the time also played a significant role in the war and its aftermath. It was on the side of the Central Power, opposite to Russia, the Ottoman rival at the time (McKinney ). The First World War c) The Following were equally important reasons why the stalemate on the Western Front was finally broken: new technology like the tank the American entry into the war the blockading of German ports the German offensive in March Explain how far you agree with this statement.
The First World War (WWI) Essay Words | 4 Pages The Price of Glory: Verdun , written by Alistair Horne, All Quiet on the Western Front, written by Erich Maria Remarque, and the many letters written by soldiers give several different and similar views of World War 1. Essay on World War I and War. Of The First World War; The Arms Race Or The Assassination Of Archduke Ferdinand In Sarajevo In ? The First World War was the product of years of tension and competition between the Great Powers. There were many separate disputes between the different countries. However these disputes had not led to war.