Consistent with the original intent Frayer et al. In addition, parts of the graphic organizer might be completed iteratively as students build and deepen their conceptual knowledge. At the opening of a unit, perhaps only basic definitional information is provided along with attempts to build background knowledge upper-left box of Figure 1.
As students begin reading, they can look for the characteristics of the term upper-right box of Figure 1. When they have more experiences with the content and learn related ideas and concepts, students can return to the Frayer Model to provide examples and nonexamples bottom-left and bottom-right boxes of Figure 1. Throughout the lesson, students need to discuss what they learn and how they think about the information they record on the graphic organizer.
This suggested process of teaching with the Frayer Model aligns with the previously discussed evidence-based features of making the terms vivid Vaughn et al. We were confident and excited about our own learning and development.
When we returned to Fort Worth from the MSMI Summer Conference, we spent days developing a basic literacy framework, and we knew explicit vocabulary instruction was a major part of that. There are many things that reading and language experts do not agree on, but teaching vocabulary is not one of them. Vocabulary instruction is an important part of reading and language arts classes, as well as content area classes such as science and humanities.
Explicit vocabulary instruction can help students learn the meaning of new words, increase their comprehension, and develop their ability to communicate effectively in a variety of formats. Helping students develop a strong vocabulary increases their capacity to read, write, discuss, present, and think. Vocabulary knowledge is a strong predictor of reading comprehension. To understand text, students must know what most of the words mean. What we did not anticipate was the vast amount of graphic organizers and models that could be used to teach vocabulary.
We reached out to MSMI to lead professional development for our core academic teachers in explicit vocabulary instruction during our scheduled Tier III site visit. With the guidance of Dr.
Deborah Reed, we chose the Frayer Model as the strategy that the entire staff would use. Our major goal at Uplift Mighty is to develop students, putting them on the path to college readiness by the time they enter high school. We needed a common literacy framework that emphasized vocabulary instruction in all content areas and that set the purpose and direction for a balanced and comprehensive literacy program to ensure that all students achieve proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
Academic vocabulary and language are critical components of college readiness. Engaging all teachers in professional development to build their capacity to use the Frayer Model to teach vocabulary was another goal. Initially, the staff was excited about using the Frayer Model.
This initial excitement soon wore off, and teachers went back to teaching vocabulary in myriad ways. We were no longer using a single strategy for vocabulary instruction, causing confusion for scholars and staff alike. We had to remind teachers why it was important to provide repeated exposure to words through an explicit vocabulary instructional strategy. In short, our goal was for the Frayer Model to do the following:.
We also soon realized that even though teachers had been trained in using the three categories of words Tier I, Tier II, and Tier III words , they had a difficult time choosing which words to teach, especially in the content areas. Teachers also perceived explicit vocabulary instruction as being time consuming, thinking they did not have enough time to use the Frayer Model.
We had to continue to work on teaching scholars to become independent vocabulary learners. All scholars on campus have been taught to use the Frayer Model. All core teachers are dedicating part of their class time to explicitly teach academic vocabulary. Making certain that students are familiar with the vocabulary they will encounter in reading selections has made the reading task easier.
As a staff, we have learned to be patient and strategic about which vocabulary words we teach. Teachers provide scholars with repeated exposures to new words in multiple oral and written contexts and sufficient practice sessions.
Our scholars are beginning to learn a range of productive meanings for vocabulary words and the correct way to use those words—beyond simply being able to recognize them in print. To learn more about research-based vocabulary instruction, explore the following resources, organized below by primary audience:. Additional resources on vocabulary instruction are available in the Middle School Matters Clearinghouse.
These resources can be filtered by intended audience or resource type. Graphic organizers and students with learning disabilities: Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 34, 51— A schema for testing the level of concept mastery. Wisconsin Center for Education. Improving comprehension of expository texts in students with LD: Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, — Quality indicators for group experimental and quasi-experimental research in special education.
Exceptional Children, 71, — A word is a word. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49, — Effects of mathematical vocabulary instruction on fourth grade students. Reading Improvement, 34 3 , — Learning academic vocabulary as language acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 47, 91— A comparison between the Frayer Model of concept attainment and the textbook approach to concept attainment. Reading Research Quarterly, 10, — Evidence for the importance of academic word knowledge for the academic achievement of diverse middle school students.
Elementary School Journal, , — Enhancing social studies vocabulary and comprehension for seventh-grade English language learners: Findings from two experimental studies.
Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2 4 , — Improving reading comprehension and social studies knowledge in middle school. Students can also express examples and nonexamples, or essential and nonessential characteristics, in a public speech or character monologue in a play.
How about the essentials and nonessentials of something via a musical piece? If your class is ready for it, how about expressing the four categories through sculpting with modeling clay? No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD.
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ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online. Sale Book Dec The Frayer Model Basic Sequence In the center of the Frayer Model graphic organizer, have your students record a topic to be summarized.
Variations and Extended Applications Although the model suggests using visual responses such as drawings, consider asking your students to respond using other modes and media. Requesting Permission For photocopy , electronic and online access , and republication requests , go to the Copyright Clearance Center. Enter the book title within the " Get Permission " search field. To translate this book, contact permissions ascd.
The Middle School Matters Institute (MSMI) is an initiative of the George W. Bush Institute in partnership with The Meadows Center for Preventing Educational Risk at The University of Texas at Austin.
In keeping with the flexibility of the ‘Frayer model’ across the curriculum, research has been undertaken on the effectiveness of the Frayer model for mathematics teaching, as well as a general strategy for acquiring and deepening vocabulary knowledge. It can be used by teachers to explicitly teach key vocabulary, prove a prompt for.
The Frayer Model is a graphical organizer used for word analysis and vocabulary building. This four-square model prompts students to think about and describe the meaning of a word or concept by Defining the term. The Frayer Model has been around for more than three decades and was recently described in Classroom Instruction That Works (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, ). Figure 18 shows the set-up. In the center of the Frayer Model graphic organizer, have your students record a topic to be summarized. In.
Frayer Model and Its Significance for Vocabulary Achievement in Classroom Environment. 8 Pages. Frayer Model and Its Significance for Vocabulary Achievement in Classroom Environment. Uploaded by. Taufik Hidayah. Download with Google Download with Facebook Frayer Model and Its Significance for Vocabulary Achievement in . ue to the extensive time it takes to use the Frayer Model, you would probably only use this instructional model when introduc- ing students to an umbrella concept that is extremely significant to a.