Unfortunately, most tuberculosis does not have distinct symptoms during the initial or dormant stage, latent tuberculosis, although they test positive in tuberculosis test. Nevertheless, one in every ten people with latent tuberculosis eventually develops to active tuberculosis that if medication in not administered leads to over fifty percent of those infected. For instance, an approximation of fourteen million cases of chronic tuberculosis was reported in In the year , nine million new cases of active infections globally, and an approximate of one million associated deaths was reported.
However, most of these infections and deaths were reported in developing continents like Africa and Asia. Although during latent stage tuberculosis has no symptoms, in active tuberculosis infection has several distinct symptoms which includes, chronic cough which in most case has some blood spots, night sweats, fever, and high rate of weight loss. However, tuberculosis infections on other body parts involve a wide range of symptoms. Active tuberculosis diagnosis majorly relies on the chest x-rays, radiology and microscopic investigations as well as body fluids microbiological culture.
Latent tuberculosis diagnosis depends on the tuberculin blood tests or skin test. Tuberculosis medication is quite challenging and needs multiple administrations of antibiotics over a long-term.
Social contacts are as well scrutinized and if necessary treated. The common and major challenge in tuberculosis medication is the antibiotic resistance. In fact, in most cases, tuberculosis develops into drug-resistant infection which becomes a great challenge to the medical doctors.
Tuberculosis prevention depends on vaccinations by use of Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin vaccine and screening programs. Our crew consists of professional academic and business writers proficient in many college subjects and disciplines. The surveillance should be improved in refugee camps.
The refugee camps should be registered and so should be refugees. Regular health check ups should be carried out in these enlisted camps. In case of exchange of refugees Afghanistan government and their health department should be approached by Pakistan for not missing out a single person treatment.
TB in HIV patients is also difficult to treat. The situation in Pakistan is bad for the case detection. The conditions like refugees, civil conflicts, poverty, overcrowding and so forth are making the detection of TB cases very difficult.
Dye et al reviewed the growth of case detection from and estimated case detection by year The figure for most developing countries shows that the case detection rate is very low. There are several hypotheses responsible for such low case detection in Pakistan.
However, there are some other factors responsible for the reduced detection of TB cases. The lack of their training often leads to miss out TB cases.
In Pakistan, there is a huge gap between Public Health system and Private. A large population including rural people relies on private health system and doctors. Private health service providers are not the part of DOTS. It has been observed that their knowledge and training often lack in TB. They often under-diagnose or over-diagnose cases of TB.
Frequently they prescribe the wrong treatment or inadequate treatment. Many people visit the private practitioners at first hand in Pakistan. It is rather needed to understand the roles of private practitioners in prevention of TB. They should be included in NTP, should be trained for diagnosing, treating and referring the patients properly. All these factors above have made TB an urgent public health condition. The lack of enough diagnosis, poor adherence to the treatment, injudicious use of drugs by private practitioners, and so forth have made the condition of TB even worse.
The emergence of multiple drug resistance is the most worrisome picture. The study in carried out by Aziz et al in Lahore described that out of people, in the study, having been on treatment for TB, one third showed resistance to isoniazid and pyrazinamide; and the resistance was rising for rifampicin. In past decade the condition of multiple drug resistance have increased. Multiple drug resistance MDR is not only difficult to treat as it results into severe form of TB, but it is also an expensive business.
Multiple drug resistance is now defined as having resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, which requires the need of second line drug treatment for treating TB Mukherjee et al, Pakistan, on the other hand can not afford to do so, neither can its people. DOTS is undoubtedly the best available tool all over the world to prevent TB or to keep it under control. A randomized control trial carried out in Pakistan among people resulted in almost same cure rate in DOTS and in self administered treatment group people Walley et al, Although, the study said that the results differed in other countries where DOTS was superior to self administered treatment, the efficacy of DOTS has some issues to be addressed.
The DOTS program is too universal to be applied to people worldwide. It has to reach to local involvement rather than sticking to global or national. DOTS, under which people or health workers have to attend each other on daily bases is not very practical attitude. Many people can not afford the travel costs, mainly women who have to be escorted by some family members in Pakistan increase the travel costs. The need is to decentralize NTP and reach to each province, each district, and every corner of Pakistan.
Monitoring the health workers is also important thing to do in Pakistan as the corruption and fraud are very common in most parts. The treatment of TB is a long process involving months of treatment at a stretch.
More funding is required in the research of new drugs and vaccines. Very short course drugs, which are affordable and accessible to everyone, should be developed; the same with research of new vaccine. Pakistan, of course, can not afford to fund such research; however, the developed countries, which are not out of the dangers of TB, have taken the initiatives to do proper research to invent new drugs or vaccines.
The study suggests that this could be a useful find for those countries where TB is endemic and numbers of cases are on rise. It is also said by oxford university reasearchers that this vaccine can enhance the potency of already existing vaccine as well. The outbreak of multiple drug resistance is very rapid and this condition is a huge burden on Pakistan economy if not considered promptly.
Drug resistance of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from treated patients in Pakistan. Retrieved on from: The Lancet, What is the limit to case detection under the DOTS strategy for tuberculosis control? Tuberculosis , 83 The Canadian Medical Association , 5: JAMA , Resistance and refugees in Pakistan: Challenges ahead in tuberculosis control.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases , 2 5: Perception and social consequences of tuberculosis: A focus group study of tuberculosis patients in Sialkot, Pakistan. Social Science and Medicine , 41 12 Guidelines for National Programmes 2 nd Ed. Programmes and principles in treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
The Lancet , Tuberculin survey among Afghan refugee children. Tubercle , 70 2:
Essay on History of Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease known since antiquity and evidence of spinal TB in the form of fossil bones dates back to around BC.
Free tuberculosis papers, essays, and research papers. Tuberculosis or TB - Tuberculosis or TB I. Introduction Print section Tuberculosis (TB), chronic or acute bacterial infection that primarily attacks the lungs, but which may also affect the kidneys, bones, lymph nodes, and brain.
Homelessness and Tuberculosis Essay - Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by slow growing bacteria called Myobacterium tuberculosis, which is usually spread from person to person by droplet nuclei through the air. The Disease Tuberculosis Essay Words | 4 Pages. The Disease Tuberculosis Tuberculosis, a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been around for thousands of years.
Tuberculosis is spread from one individual, who has an active tuberculosis infection, to another through the air, and hence it is an airborne disease. When the tuberculosis infected person cough or sneeze, the tuberculosis mycobacteriums are released to the air which are inhaled by the other peoples and thus lead to spread of the disease. Essay on tuberculosis. By admin | 15th May 0 Comment. Dr. Tauseefullah Akhund M.B.B.S, MPH (Sydney), (Australia) October 20, Tuberculosis is one of the dreadful diseases affecting a number of people in developing countries including Pakistan. It is one of the most common diseases causing a high mortality and morbidity.